Mesothelioma diagnosis: A Deadly Lung Cancer
whopping 2,000 to 3,000 new cases of mesothelioma is on the rise in United States of America. Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer and it is an aftereffect of the asbestos exposure. The cancerous cells tend to destroy the mesothelium, which is a protective sac that holds the internal organs of the body. Initially, pleura or peritoneum are affected and then it spreads to the other parts of the body. It is a fatal disease and the survival time of the victim is almost one year from the time of diagnosis depending on the treatment and other contributing factors.
What is mesothelioma diagnosis prognosis?
Prognosis for mesothelioma is solely dependent on the merit of diagnosis and the treatment. If treatment is provided with much delay then the survival chance of the victim grows slimmer. Then again, survivability depends heavily on factors like treatment, type of mesothelioma as well as patients health and morale. The stage of the disease during diagnosis is the most crucial factor that decides the prognosis and the minimum survival expectancy of the victim. But disappointingly, mesothelioma unlike other cancers is somewhat difficult to stage. This is because the symptoms of mesothelioma are non-specific due to which the cells are already matured at the time of diagnosis.
What are the determining factors that lead to prognosis?
The early detection of the disease is imperative for pursuing any kind of treatment. The location and size of the cancer, response of the cancer to the treatment, the extent to which the cancer has spread, what impression does the cells give under the microscope and the patients age are some of the contributing factors that determine prognosis. It should be pointed out that diagnosis of the disease is not a Childs play. Further more it becomes all the very more difficult because of the deceptive nature of the subtle symptoms of mesothelioma. Like for example, if you are coughing and you might never know that you have contracted the disease unless and until your doctor clarifies it all by providing a mesothelioma prognosis.
Do you know about the mesothelioma diagnosis treatment options?
Amongst the staging systems the oldest of them all is the Butchart system, based on the extent of mass, primary tumor and segregates the cancer into four stages. The TNM system is a more recent one while the Brigham system is the latest. It uses respectability and lymph node involvement for staging mesothelioma. The traditional kinds of treatments are also prevalent in case of malignant mesothelioma. Radiation therapy exercises high-energy X-rays to eradicate cancer cells while chemotherapy does it through use of drugs. Immunotherapy helps to strengthen the immune system; photodynamic therapy uses light energy while the genetic therapy resurrects the inherent genetic defects of the patient to fight the disease.
The process of removing fluid from the chest is known as thoracentesis while fluid reduction from the abdomen is known as paracentesis. Conventional surgeries and effective drugs like L-NDDP or Plater, Endostatin and Lovastatin somewhat come to the rescue of the victims of mesothelioma. The surgical removal of a part of the chest or the abdominal lining is called pleurotomy and if the lung is removed, then the operation will be termed as pneumonectomy.
Mesothelioma is a rare yet deadly cancer that almost always surfaces in a malignant form and results in tumors on significant organs of the body. Most people believe mesothelioma is a cancer of the mesothelium. So what exactly is the mesothelium? The mesothelium is a film or sac that surrounds vital organs in an attempt to protect them (such organs can include the lungs and heart). Mesothelioma can almost always be attributed to asbestos. While we might think there exists only one form of mesothelioma, there actually several. We will be talking about pleural mesothelioma, peritoneal mesothelioma, and pericardial mesothelioma. As unfortunate as it may be, mesotheliomas symptoms dont surface until the disease has progressed, which at times can be several years following exposure to asbestos. As one might guess, this can make diagnosis a pain and treatment a near impracticality.
Pleural mesothelioma is the widely known variant of mesothelioma. In this form of mesothelioma, tumors develop on the lining of the lungs. Most people with the disease have a difficult time swallowing, breathing, and getting around without coughing. They may also experience other symptoms such as weight loss.
Peritoneal Mesothelioma is a more uncommon form of mesothelioma. This variant of the disease sheds ill will on the lower parts of the body, particularly the abdomen and stomach. This cancer can start in either of the two locations and metastize (grow into other parts of the body). This variant of the disease tends to bring about more severe symptoms such as nausea and blood clots. Since these tumors can put pressure on surrounding organs, they can make for an unpleasant sensation.
Finally, its time we talk of a very rare type of mesothelioma, pericardial mesothelioma. This variant focuses on the heart and can bring about palpitations and breathing problems.
If you are or have ever experienced these types of symptoms, its best to speak to a doctor.
Mesothelioma: A Deadly Lung Cancer
Mesothelioma diagnosis is a deadly cancer of the lungs and the abdominal cavities. Unlike other diseases, the cause of mesothelioma is not natural. In most of the cases, it is a cancer of lungs inflicted on the human beings by the modern economic factors, which are also credited to bring prosperity to the corporate world.
The disease has left many dead and many more fighting for the failing health. The common symptoms related to the disease are breathlessness, dry cough and pain in the respiratory tracts followed by vomiting. The prime Cause of mesothelioma is the exposure to asbestos.
Asbestos is a natural fibrous material that was widely used in various industries and building materials because of its stability and heat resistant properties. However, asbestos is also a deadly contaminant and responsible for serious diseases such as asbestosis, mesothelioma cancers and lung cancer. Most of the diseases are caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers that could settle in the internal body organs and cause serious diseases. Mesothelioma and other asbestos related diseases can lie dormant in the body for decades before diagnosis. The worst part is that after diagnosis the patient has hardly any left for fighting these diseases.
Asbestos has extensively been mined in South Africa and exported to UK & US factories for reprocessing. For many years, the industrialists enjoyed the benefits of asbestos as a cheap substitute to wood in Building Material Industry and an integral part of Brake Lining material used extensively in vehicles during the World Wars. Asbestos was also widely used as an Insulation material in the buildings and industries in the US and Europe.
The victims of mesothelioma can file lawsuits for seeking compensation against the companies responsible for asbestos exposure. They can seek compensation for medical expenses, loss of income, lost earning capacity, pain and sufferings. The family members and relatives of the people who die because of mesothelioma cancers can also file lawsuits for compensation to recover the loss of consortium care. A dozen of companies who made an exit from the business decades ago are still fighting the huge compensation bills pending against them for causing a major biological disorder. The courts have ordered huge amounts as compensation in most of the mesothelioma lawsuits.
Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma: A Deadly Curse Of Asbestos
Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma is a quite uncommon type of cancer caused due to asbestos exposure. While it is difficult to diagnose Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma, it hardly responds to any type of therapy. This is the most serious of all asbestos-related diseases. The possibility of finding this type of cancer is on the lips and the larynx. However, in certain cases it may affect the oral cavity as well. Like all other forms of mesothelioma cancers, this cancer is a fatal disease and hardly responds to any method of treatment. Even though radiation therapy is recommended for the treatment of these cancerous tumors, but some of them may not be radiosensitive and may defy radiation for treatment.
Diagnosis of Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma:
The differentiation of sarcomatoid mesothelioma from other cell tumors by light microscopy is quite difficult. The role of immunohistochemistry is also not well defined in its diagnosis. Since sarcomatoid mesothelioma is not always cytokeratin-negative, the distinction between it and sarcoma is not always possible. In this context, the doctors undertook a study to investigate the utility of diagnostic immunohistochemistry for distinguishing sarcomatoid mesothelioma from its histological mimics, high-grade sarcoma and pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma.
For its study, the researchers stained the mesotheliomas with sarcomatoid components. They assessed the intensity and distribution of staining with the help of a semi quantitative scale. Only tumors with unequivocal staining were considered positive for tabulation. Then they compared the immunophenotypic profiles of these tumors with 24 high-grade sarcomas. The sarcomatoid carcinomas were also stained for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1).
The study showed that Cytokeratin 5/6 stained most of the epithelioids but the sarcomatoids were rarely stained. On the other hand, Calretinin and thrombomodulin each stained 70% of sarcomatoid. All 10 sarcomatoids were negative for TTF-1. This led to the conclusion that a wide immunophenotypic overlap exists among different sarcomatoids. Cytokeratin and calretinin have the most value in differentiating different sarcomatoids. Clinicopathological data, especially information about the gross appearance of the tumor is quite important for sarcomatoid tumors. Thus, it should be noted and carefully correlated with microscopic and immunohistochemical findings.